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A long-standing history of cooperation between the Energy Charter Secretariat and the National Energy Administration of China has recently intensified reflecting China’s global energy investment interests. China gained Observer status to the Energy Charter Conference in 2015 when it signed the International Energy Charter political declaration in The Hague. In 2017, the International Energy Charter-China Electricity Council Joint Research Centre was established in Beijing. The Energy Charter Industry Advisory Panel (IAP) has been also active in China, holding IAP sessions in Beijing in 2015 and 2017 and assisting the Energy Charter Secretariat with the publications related to the energy...

The Energy Investment Risk Assessment (EIRA) is a publication of the Energy Charter Secretariat that evaluates specific risks affecting energy investment that can be mitigated through adjustments to policy, legal and regulatory frameworks. It aims to identify policy gaps, provide learning opportunities, and stimulate reforms which make the investment climate of countries more robust and reduce the risk of investor-State disputes. 

The Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU) is often compared to the project of the European Union (EU). While one of the most common comparisons is the institutional structure of the EAEU, another important point of resemblance when noting the development of the Eurasian integration is the energy component. Russia stresses the security of demand as one of primary issue of its national security and energy plays an important role in the country's external relations, while for other EAEU members the security of supply makes an important part of their economic prosperity. Similar to the EU, where energy became one of the driving forces behind the European integration, the initiative of a common energy...

An in-depth review of the energy efficiency policy of Kyrgyzstan was conducted in 2017 and published in 2018. This review report has been prepared by the Energy Charter Secretariat in cooperation with the country’s State Committee on Industry, Energy and Subsoil. The peer review team was composed of officials from countries that are parties to the Protocol on Energy Efficiency and Related Environmental Effects (PEEREA): Mr Sergey Katyshev, Advisor to the President, Director of the Project Management Department of the Kazakhstan Electricity Grid Operation Company (KEGOC), Chair of the Kyrgyz Republic Review; Ms Kristel Nõges, Executive Officer, Energy Efficiency, Energy Department, Ministry...

In 2007, The Philippines had expressed its interest in signing the European Energy Charter of 1991. Nonetheless, for some years the signing process has not moved forward due to bureaucratic obstacles and, in one instance, due to the resignation of officials. This paper aims to show that pursuing the signing process – and in effect retaining its observer status to the Energy Charter Conference – would be beneficial to the Philippines. Furthermore, it will also be argued that acceding to the Energy Charter Treaty would be very advantageous for the country.

The Occasional Paper is available in English.

The International Energy Charter has published the Annual Report for 2017 which provides valuable insight into the activities and events throughout the year. The Report highlights the active engagement of Turkmenistan who assumed the Chairmanship of the Energy Charter Conference in January 2017. 

China is a pivotal country in the global energy sector. The country is not only a major producer of fossil fuels, but also the world’s largest importer of fossil fuels. China is also cementing its global dominance as a producer of renewable energy. It is a major investor in several countries across the globe, as well as a significant producer of clean-energy technologies. The Energy Charter Treaty (ECT), with its vast membership and related legal instruments and institutions, is the optimal platform for China in terms of promoting regional energy cooperation and facilitating the implementation of infrastructure projects within the framework of the “Belt and Road” Initiative.

As a result of the 2014 Review conducted under Article 34.7 of the Energy Charter Treaty, the Energy Charter Secretariat engaged in a series of activities to analyse the existing barriers to the establishment of energy investment, the benefits of shared principles for the establishment of investment as well as available policy options to remove such barriers by means of domestic and international rules.

Energy contracts are negotiated with a view to allocate benefits and responsibilities for years to come. Negotiating such complex and lengthy contracts is a  challenge under any  circumstances. However, governments often face challenges associated with a lack of expertise, imbalance of financial resources, time pressure and other factors, not necessarily always within their control. Thus, it is important to support governments to acquire expertise in contract negotiations for complex and long term  projects. A  well  negotiated  contract,  with  the  full  understanding  of  the  government  of  all the potential policy options involved, reduces potential conflicts and facilitates its...

This report is the first step in an iterative process involving an industry task force established by the Energy Charter Secretariat, and is intended to provide a basis for a discussion of key issues relating to the potential standardisation of LNG SPAs.  This review is primarily focused on medium to long term LNG SPAs, but it may also be applicable to certain spot contracts. In considering the standardisation of LNG SPAs, the intention is not to take into account specific market factors, such as whether there is (or is perceived to be) under or over supply of LNG in the market, or any other market related issues, now or in the future.  It is considered that standard contracts and provisions...

This report is part of the activities carried out by the Energy Charter Secretariat in 2016-2017 aimed at preparing the groundwork on policy options for eliminating barriers to the establishment of energy investments. It contributes to these activities by answering the research questions: what are the international legal instruments available for removing barriers to the establishment of energy investments? What is the current practice of negotiating pre-investment obligations? What are the challenges in negotiating a new binding instrument in the energy sector and what lessons can be learnt from past experiences? What are the opportunities for negotiating a non-binding instrument?

The Energy Charter Secretariat has published the Annual Report 2016.

The International Energy Charter publishes its first in-depth review of the energy efficiency policy of Armenia. The review, conducted in 2016, has been prepared by the Energy Charter Secretariat in cooperation with Armenia’s Ministry of Energy Infrastructure and Natural Resources (MENR). 

The Energy Charter Treaty obliges member states to endeavour to provide non-discriminatory treatment to investors from other member states in the 'pre-investment phase', i.e., the making of investments. This obligation, described in more detail in Article 10(2) of the Treaty, applies to the parties who have ratified the Treaty or apply it provisionally. The Blue Book is continuously updated, and revised versions are posted on the website.

This paper discusses the role of the World Trade Organization (WTO) and the Energy Charter Treaty (ECT) in the legal architecture regulating energy trade. It advocates that both legal institutions serve as vital tools to global energy governance in a rapidly changing trading landscape riddled with fragmentation. While both the WTO and ECT are treaty-based regimes, the WTO is a broad trade framework regulating trade in all goods and services of its Members, whereas the ECT is a specialised regime regulating trade and investment in the energy sector.