Energy is critical to lasting economic growth, employment and environmental sustainability. The energy mix is changing on a global scale: the share of renewable energy has been rising in recent years, and this trend is expected to continue, despite the recent fall in fossil fuel prices. This change is driven by a range of market, technology and policy factors that vary from country to country. Creating favourable conditions for sustainable energy investments will be one of the greatest challenges in the years to come in Africa. In particular, African countries need to signal to investors that they are ready for capital inflows in affordable, reliable and sustainable energy.